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Vacatures

Voor PhD-plekken, stageplaatsen en andere vactures, zie deze pagina.


Pre-U

Voor vacatures van Pre-U, zie de Pre-U vacature pagina


BSc & MSc Assignments at Industrial Focus Group XUV Optics

A list of BSc & MSc Assignments at the Industrial Focus Group XUV Optics can be found here.

BSc: Contribution of second layer scattering in Low Energy Ion Scattering
Contact: Andrey Zameshin (a.zameshin@utwente.nl)

Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) is a surface analysis technique almost exclusively sensitive to a topmost
layer composition. We recently found out that in a rare selection of materials a contribution of second
layer scattering is pronounced. This effect was observed before for very “open” crystal planes with low
atomic density, but in our case the explanation is completely different and much more interesting. We
believe it is connected to a high ion survival fraction in the material. To properly justify our theory ion
fraction has to be measured on a number of different surfaces, composed of different elements. This is
mostly a pure experimental task, which involves a healthy amount of challenge of systematically
collecting LEIS spectra for different ion energies for every given surface. We expect that the data
obtained in this bachelor project will be the experimental basis of a paper we plan to publish on this
topic. Bachelor students are welcome to participate in the paper.

MSc: Development of X-ray reflectivity for thin film and multilayer structures.
Contact : Dr. I.A. Makhotkin (i.makhotkin@utwente.nl)

X-Ray reflectivity (XRR) is one of the most useful characterization techniques for thin films and
multilayers. XRR has the following benefits: it is non-destructive, compatible with ambient or gas
atmosphere environments, suitable for in-operando measurements of thin film processes (think of
heat induced diffusion for example) and measurements can be performed using lab equipment.
The “only” challenge in GIXR analysis is the reconstruction of the thin film information from the
measurement. The reconstruction of the thin film structure from measured data requires a complex
approach of fitting calculated reflectivity from a model of the thin film to the measured data, varying
the parameters of a fit model.
Within this project you will apply and further develop state-of-the-art assumption independent
algorithms used for thin film characterization. The beauty of this project is that your skills developed
in this thin film metrology project will be useful for a large variety of research fields where thin films
are applied. Examples can be found in photovoltaics, thin film batteries research, and even in life
science research on lipid membranes.

MSc: Synthesis of multilayer structures with atomic scale layer thickness
Contact: dr. Andrey Yakshin (a.yakshin@utwente.nl)

This project aims for the development of multilayer systems for the use as spectroscopic elements.These serve the purpose of analyzing soft x-ray emission spectra of materials e.g. upon excitation by x-rays or electrons. The analysis then allows the quantitative determination of the x-ray emitting elements in the materials, a technique which in the final application reaches great precision, preferably down to the ppb range. The desired wavelength range for this application is in the 10 to a few nm band, with emphasis on the range below 6 nm, including the so-called water window, below 4.4 nm. To reach substantial reflectivity, the multilayered optics need to have atomically sharp layer interfaces. To meet this extreme requirement, different approaches on layer growth manipulation will be applied: low-energy ion beams during the layer deposition process, thermalized particle deposition, unbalanced magnetron sputtering with high flux of low energy particles. Other new approaches are continuously being proposed and tested. A series of metrology techniques is to be applied: at-wavelength reflectometry, Cu-Kα-reflectometry and diffraction, low energy ion scattering, XPS, AES, AFM, STM, and TEM.

MSc: Laser measurement of surface temperature
Contact: dr. I. Makhotkin (i.makhotkin@utwente.nl)

Fast local and fast measurements of temperature is useful tool for example in research of heat transfer,
or temperature control of thin film deposition. For applications where standard tools like thermo couples
often cannot be applied because of low measurement speed the laser based temperature measurement
can be applied. Physics behind this measurement scheme is based on the temperature dependence of the
reflective coefficient of thin films. Therefore measuring the reflectance of laser light we will be able to
determine the temperature of the film. The task for this project is based on existing knowledge to design,
assemble and test laser based reflectometer, that is adapted for ultra-sensitive measurements of changes
of intensity of reflected from thin film reflected light (code IM).

MSc: Analysis of XRD data from Y films
Contact: dr. Igor Makhotkin (i.makhotkin@utwente.nl)

The goal is to analyze the shape an parameters of XRD peaks fitting them with pseudo Voight function.
The student will have to prepare a script for peak fitting and analyzed measured before XRD data sets.
The program should be able to fit overlap peaks. Potentially in case of successful and fast fitting of peaks
a size-strain calculation using Warren-Averbach method can be performed by the student.

MSc: Measurement and preliminary analysis of crystalline sizes in thin metallic films
Contact: dr. Igor Makhotkin (i.makhotkin@utwente.nl)

To measure X-ray diffraction plots from various thin metallic films optimizing measurement conditions
with the goal to select the best measurement scheme and determine the best measurement scheme and
determine the instrumental function of different optical elements.

MSc: In-house grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
Contact: dr. Igor Makhotkin (i.makhotkin@utwente.nl)

In many fields of modern research scientists are dealing with thin films. No matter what field is explored,
whether it is connected to optical coatings, thermoelectric, magnetic materials or bio-membranes, for
understanding the thin film functional characteristics it is of vital importance to be able to characterise their
internal structure. Apart from academic research, thin film characterization is also widely explored by
industrial R&D departments for development of new products or quality control of production lines.
For characterization of the internal structure of thin films, X-ray based techniques are preferred because they
are non-destructive and relatively simple. We are currently planning to equip our in-lab X-ray reflectivity
setup with a X-ray fluorescence detector for combined measurement of X-ray reflectivity and X-ray
fluorescence signals, a unique combination of experimental techniques that allows access to both (electron)
density and atomic concentration profiles of thin films. Part of the assignment will be, together with scientist
of the XUV lab and industrial partner, to integrate a fluorescence detector into the currently available X-ray
reflectometer and perform and analyse the first combined measurements.
As in many other X-ray metrology techniques, the reconstruction of the internal structure of a sample is not
a straightforward task. Recently we have develop a fast and efficient way to analyse x-ray data measured
from periodic layered structures. The next step in analysis is to develop a robust algorithm for the analysis of
thin aperiodic films and this will be part of the assignment.

MSc: Flying circus spectrometer: A tool for understanding EUV light sources
Contact: dr. Muharrem Bayraktar (m.bayraktar@utwente.nl)

The XUV Optics group is undertaking an exciting spin-off project based on a newly developed optical
component: a nanoscale patterned transmission grating that enables high resolution spectroscopy in the
XUV wavelength range. The project goal is to do a comprehensive spectral characterization of EUV
sources, through measurement of source spectrum in a broad range, from EUV to visible. Industry has
shown interest and a recent grant was received for further optical and technological development of
spectrometers. Currently a wealth of spectroscopic data is being gathered from several EUV sources
including the most powerful industrial sources in the world.
The assignment of this project is to measure and characterize the spectra from different light sources.
Goal is to develop and evaluate methods for retrieval of the emitted spectra from measurements. A
particular challenge in the retrival is the overlap of several diffraction orders of the grating and
contribution of the noise. Candidate solutions include a first method to stitch spectra retrieved from 1st
order measurements with several bandpass filters, and a second method to remove all higher order
diffraction contributions from measured spectrum. In this project, you can gain experience in principles
of spectrometers and spectroscopic analysis.

MSc: Detecting hydrogen from the sputtered ion signal in low-energy ion scattering
Contact: dr. Marko Sturm (j.m.sturm@utwente.nl)

Low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) probes the outermost atomic layer of a surface by backscattering of
noble gas ions. Under certain conditions, also depth profiles up to 5–10 nm depth can be obtained. LEIS
spectra of hydrogen containing samples have a background signal at the low energy side of the
spectrum due to hydrogen atoms that are sputtered away and ionised by the noble gas ions used for
probing the sample. Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurements can separate the hydrogen ion signal from
other sputtered elements and backscattered ions. A previous bachelor student project has shown that
the thus obtained hydrogen signal is indeed proportional to the hydrogen content of the sample. In this
assignment, the focus will be on a better understanding of the detection depth of hydrogen by LEIS, the
possibilities for quantification and the detection of hydrogen in sputter depth profiles.


Bachelor Honours Programme

Could you handle an extra challenge on top of your current study efforts? Are you capable and motivated to expand your network, broaden your knowledge and give your CV that extra neat touch?
Then maybe the UT bachelor honours programme is something for you.

The University of Twente offers students an opportunity to increase their knowledge and improve their skills outside of their regular study. The honours programme is an excellence programme for students who want and can do more next to their own study, starting in February. Within its excellence programme the UT offers a variety of subjects, or tracks, these include: Maths, Science, Design, Philosophy and Processes of Change, providing something of interest for every student! 

The programme is university wide which means that you will have classes with students from all different studies, ranging from Philosophy to Mathematics to Civil Engineering. The programme takes 1.5 years and you will be accredited 30 ECs if you have successfully completed it.

For more information you are welcome to join the following events:

28 November    12:40-13:30       HT500B:              Faculty information meeting – TNW

12 December    12:40-13:20        Ravelijn foyer:   Information market

For more information about the programme’s content please check out our website:
https://www.utwente.nl/en/excellence/bachelor/honours/


Afstuderen (MSc) bij MSS (EWI/EEMCS)

Background
In the last 50 years the composition of natural gas in the Dutch gas grid was very constant. It is expected that the gas quality
bands are going to vary much more due to changes of the main gas supply streams, i.e. the introduction of biogas in the
gas grid will also lead to broadening of the gas quality bands. Although the used volume of biogas is relatively low, it can
cause variation because the gas quality of biogas varies periodically. This can cause a shift in the currently existing paradigm
of paying per cubic meter of gas (€/m-3) to paying per mega Joule of heat generated per cubic meter of gas (€/mJ/m-3).

Contact information
Supervisor: Dr. ir. Remco Wiegerink (r.j.wiegerink@utwente.nl)
Daily supervisor: Ing. Henk-Willem Veltkamp, MSc (h.veltkamp@utwente.nl)

MSc thesis – Catalytic microscale combustion

Project
The project, of which you become a part, aims at the realization of a miniaturized Wobbe index meter for
the measurement of the energy content of fuel gases in a single silicon chip. Fuel gas and air are mixed in
this chip and heated up to ignition temperature, resulting in spontaneous combustion:

CH4(g) + 2 O2(g)  CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l)

The combustion energy is estimated from the resulting elevation in temperature and, combined with
density and flow rates measured by integrated micro Coriolis mass flow sensors, the Wobbe index can be
calculated. The μWobbe index meter can replace existing bulky and expensive Wobbe index meters (see
image) and enables gas monitoring at the central heating system of the consumer’s home.
Your MSc thesis is all about how the flame propagation and the formed combustion products relate to the gas flow rates.
This will be done by performing a thorough literature study on microscale combustion, the thermodynamics, radicals and
quenching, and by performing combustion experiments inside quartz capillary and analyzing the combustion products.
When time allows, there is also the possibility to look into catalytic combustion.
Your project will be performed in the Micro Sensors and Systems group of the faculty EWI/EEMCS:

https://www.utwente.nl/ewi/mss/

You will work closely together with your daily supervisor and one other PhD student, who are both working on the STW
project “Integrated Wobbe Index Meter”.

Tasks
Summarized, your assignment consists of the following tasks:
– Literature study on micro/mini scale combustion, including thermodynamics, radicals and possible quenching;
– Building an experimental setup for combustion experiments in fused silica capillaries/tubing;
– Performing combustion experiments, i.e. measuring the flame velocity;
– Measuring the combustion products via a suitable method;
– Literature study on combustion catalysts;
– Applying a catalyst inside the quartz capillary and measuring the formed (catalytic) combustion products.
– Analyzing data and proposing relationships between flow, tube/capillary diameter, temperature, flame velocity,
combustion products, etc.
And when time and one’s background allows:
– Development of a COMSOL model including the CFD, heat transfer, and combustion reaction;

Profile
Are you a master student with a chemical and/or physics background (Chemical Engineering, Applied Physics,
Nanotechnology) and currently looking for a MSc thesis topic, then maybe this is a suitable topic for you.

MSc thesis – Catalytic microscale combustion

Project
The project, of which you become a part, aims at the realization of a miniaturized Wobbe index meter for
the measurement of the energy content of fuel gases. Fuel gas and air are mixed and heated up to ignition
temperature, resulting in spontaneous combustion:

CH4(g) + 2 O2(g)  CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l)

The combustion energy is estimated from the resulting elevation in temperature and, combined with
density and flow rates measured by integrated micro Coriolis mass flow sensors, the Wobbe index can be
calculated. One of the possible directions is a device 3D printed in ceramic material (Al2O3). This device
can replace existing bulky and expensive Wobbe index meters and enables gas monitoring at the central
heating system of the consumer’s home.
Your MSc thesis is all about designing and testing such a device. Examples of things that need to be taken into account are
optimal mixing strategies, implementation of heaters and sensors, heat transfer through the device and analysis of
combustion products. When time allows, there is also the possibility to look into catalytic combustion and methods how to
combine this with the 3D printed device.
Your project will be performed in the Micro Sensors and Systems group of the faculty EWI/EEMCS:

https://www.utwente.nl/ewi/mss/

You will work closely together with your daily supervisor and one other PhD student, who are both working on the STW
project “Integrated Wobbe Index Meter”.

Tasks
Summarized, your assignment consists of the following tasks:
– Literature study on micro/mini scale combustion;
– Modelling different geometries for mixing and heating;
– Designing a 3D printed Wobbe index meter;
– Investigate how to print such a device in ceramic material (together with a company, since we don’t have the
experience);
– Performing combustion experiments in this 3D printed device;
– Measuring the combustion products via a suitable method;
– Analyzing data and proposing relationships between flow, temperature, combustion products, etc.
And when time and one’s background allows:
– Literature study on combustion catalysts;
– Applying a catalyst in the 3D printed device and measuring the formed (catalytic) combustion products.

Profile
Are you a master student with a mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and/or physics background and currently
looking for a MSc thesis topic, then maybe this is a suitable topic for you.


High Tech Systems and Materials Masters Honours Programme

• Are you looking for an extra challenge on top of your Master’s degree?

• Would you like to be trained by excellent scientists and optimize your chances on a high profile industrial or PhD position?

• Would you like to deepen your knowledge of your own field, yet also join forces with students from other (technical) disciplines?

• Are you up for challenging real-life product development assignments together with one of our industrial partners?

Then the HTSM Master’s Honours Programme is just what you are looking for!

The Universities of Groningen and Twente – in cooperation with Astron, BD Kiestra, Innovatiecluster Drachten and Philips Consumer Lifestyle – offer talented, motivated students the opportunity to challenge themselves with this unique extra-curricular Master’s Honours Programme.

For whom?

The highly selective admission procedure is open to students from both the University of Groningen and the University of Twente. Talented, ambitious students from the following course programmes are welcome to apply:

• (Applied) Physics

• Chemistry

• Chemical Engineering

• Industrial Engineering and Management

• Industrial Design Engineering

• Mechanical Engineering

• Electrical Engineering

• Computer Science

• Artificial Intelligence

• Human-Machine Communication

• Other science studies with a clear technical component applicable to the HTSM sector, such as mathematics, biomedical engineering, life sciences & technology and molecular biology.

Selection criteria

• A Bachelor’s degree by 1 September with good to excellent results, including a Bachelor’s thesis marked above average.

• Good oral and written skills in English (TOEFL 580).

• Highly motivated toward the focus of the programme: multidisciplinary, innovative, high tech product development.

• Able to pair a great intellectual ability with technical skills and interests.

• Specific personal qualities (innovative, independent, creative, original, proactive and persevering).

• Motivated and able to collaborate with other (technical) disciplines in multidisciplinary teams.

• The desire to widen your knowledge beyond the borders of your own discipline and beyond technical and non-technical borders.

 

More information about the programme and selection procedure is available on the following website: www.rug.nl/honours/htsm-masterprogramme

 


Pre-U

Kijk ook eens op de vacaturepagina van Pre-U voor meer vacatures.